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What Causes Infertility In Men?



Male Fertility Complete Guide

Are you having problems conceiving? It’s a dream of many to settle down and start a family. However, dreams cannot always come true for all. Infertility is one of the main problems males face in impregnating their partners. It can be frustrating and stressful to be unable to conceive a child. Thankfully, having infertility issues does not automatically rule out the possibility of starting a family with your significant other. There are treatments as well as procedures that can enhance your chances of starting a family. In this article, we’ll read about what causes infertility in men? Read more about the IVF step-by-step process and everything you need to know about male infertility. 

In this article, let’s understand more about male infertility, along with the causes and treatment options. 

Male Infertility Meaning

Male infertility is an issue with a man’s reproductive system that prevents him from getting his partner pregnant. If you and your partner have been having unprotected sex repeatedly for a year, and she still cannot become pregnant, chances are you, she or both of you may be experiencing infertility.

Causes Of Male Infertility

There are many problems that can prevent cells from developing into sperm. A variety of factors can prevent the egg from receiving sperm. Even the scrotum’s temperature can have an impact on fertility Following are some of the common causes of male infertility:

Sperm Disorder

Sperm problems may be caused by inherited traits. Moreover, lifestyle choices can reduce sperm count. Your drinking, smoking or using certain medications can all reduce your sperm count. 

Other causes of low sperm counts can be chromosome and hormone problems, chronic or long-term illness, like kidney failures, or an infection that occurred during childhood, like mumps. 

Approximately four out of every ten men with total sperm failure cause a blockage within the sperm tubes. A blockage can be caused by a birth defect or even a problem like an infection.


Varicoceles are swollen scrotal veins. They are common in males who are infertile. They hamper sperm growth by preventing proper blood drainage. 

Retrograde Ejaculation

When sperm moves backwards in the body, this is known as retrograde ejaculation. They pass through your bladder rather than your penis. This occurs when your bladder’s nerves and muscles do not close when you climax. Surgery, medications, or nervous system health problems can all cause retrograde ejaculation.  

Semen may contain normal sperm, but it isn’t released from your penis. So it cannot reach the vagina.

Immunologic Factors

A man’s body can produce antibodies that harm his own sperm. Antibodies are most commonly produced as a result of surgery, injury or infection. They prevent sperm from travelling and functioning normally.


The tubes by which the sperm move can become clogged at times. Surgery, infections, swelling, or developmental defects can all result in blockage. Sperm from the testicles cannot leave the body during ejaculation if there is a blockage.


Hormones produced by the pituitary gland guide the testicles to produce sperm. Sperm growth is hampered by low hormone levels.


Half of the DNA is carried by sperm to the egg. Changes in chromosome number and structure can have an impact on fertility. Parts of the male Y chromosome, for instance, could be missing.

Male Fertility Treatment Options

Thanks to science and technological advancements, there are several treatment options for male infertility. However, do bear in mind that the treatment options differ depending on the reason for infertility.

Here are a few measures you can take to prevent or treat your infertility:

Changes In Lifestyle

  • Maintain a healthy weight for your body.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Quit drinking.
  • Quit smoking marijuana.
  • Avoid using any recreational drugs.

Options For Surgery

  • Vasectomy reversal: This procedure is performed as an outpatient procedure. The surgeon rejoins your vas deferens, which is the scrotal tube by which your sperm travels. The surgeon sews the ends of the vas deferens back together while viewing it through a high-powered surgical microscope.
  • Vasoepididymostomy: A similar technique is used to repair blockages in your vas deferens. The vas deferens are divided surgically, the blockage is removed, and the tube ends are reconnected.
  • Sperm Retrieval: Another surgical option for infertile males is to find sperm via a testicle biopsy. 

Additional Options

  • ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection): This is a procedure wherein a single sperm is physically injected into an egg. Thanks to this technique, 90% of infertile males have a chance of having their own genetic child.
  • IVF (In Vitro Fertilization): In this procedure, mature eggs are retrieved from the ovaries and fertilised in a laboratory with sperm. The fertilised egg or eggs are then placed in the uterus. A full IVF cycle takes approximately three weeks. Read more about IUI vs IVF success rate

When Should You See A Doctor?

You should consult a doctor if you haven’t conceived a child after one year of regular and unprotected intercourse or if you have any of the following symptoms or experiences:

  • Erection or ejaculation issues, low sex drive, or other sexual function issues.
  • If you experience pain, discomfort, a lump, or swelling.
  • You have a history of testicular, prostate, or sexual dysfunction.
  • Surgery on the groyne, testicles, penis, or scrotum.
  • You have a partner who is 35 years of age or older. 


Do not be discouraged if you are unable to impregnate your partner because, thanks to medicines, science and technology, there are now many different types of treatments you can utilise. You can enhance your likelihood of conception by joining forces with your partner as well as doctors. 

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